Minerals

Minerals as Nutrients

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Main article: Mineral (nutrient)

Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbonhydrogennitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term “mineral” is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned – including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources (such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells). Some are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most well-known is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.[medical citation needed]

The minerals required in the largest quantities are generally electrolytes, these include: [21][medical citation needed][22]

  • Calcium (Ca2+) is vital to the health of the muscular, circulatory, and digestive systems; is indispensable to the building of bone; and supports the synthesis and function of blood cells. For example, calcium is used to regulate the contraction of muscles, nerve conduction, and the clotting of blood. It can play this role because the Ca2+ ion forms stable coordination complexes with many organic compounds, especially proteins; it also forms compounds with a wide range of solubilities, enabling the formation of the skeleton.[23]
  • Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below.
  • Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity). Approximately 50% is in bone, the remaining 50% is almost all inside body cells, with only about 1% located in extracellular fluid. Food sources include oats, buckwheat, tofu, nuts, caviar, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and chocolate.[24][25]
  • Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing.[26] Approximately 80% is found in inorganic portion of bones and teeth. Phosphorus is a component of every cell, as well as important metabolites, including DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids. Also important in pH regulation. It is an important electrolyte in the form of phosphate[27]. Food sources include cheese, egg yolk, milk, meat, fish, poultry, whole-grain cereals, and many others.[24]
  • Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health). With sodium, potassium is involved in maintaining normal water balance, osmotic equilibrium, and acid-base balance. In addition to calcium, it is important in the regulation of neuromuscular activity. Food sources include bananas, avocados, vegetables, potatoes, legumes, fish, and mushrooms.[25]
  • Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt.
Minerals Required in Smaller Amounts and Trace Minerals

Many elements are required in smaller amounts (microgram quantities), usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes.[28] Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are, in alphabetical order:[medical citation needed]

Ultratrace Minerals

Ultratrace minerals are an as yet unproven aspect of human nutrition, and may be required at amounts measured in very low ranges of μg/day. Many ultratrace elements have been suggested as essential, but such claims have usually not been confirmed. Definitive evidence for efficacy comes from the characterization of a biomolecule containing the element with an identifiable and testable function. These include[32][33]:

  • Bromine
  • Arsenic
  • Nickel
  • Fluorine
  • Boron
  • Lithium
  • Strontium
  • Silicon

Mineral (nutrient)

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In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. [1] [2][3] However, the four major structural elements in the human body by weight (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen), are usually not included in lists of major nutrient minerals (nitrogen is considered a “mineral” for plants, as it often is included in fertilizers). These four elements compose about 96% of the weight of the human body, and major minerals (macrominerals) and minor minerals (also called trace elements) compose the remainder.

Minerals, being elements, cannot be synthesized biochemically by living organisms.[4] Plants get minerals from soil.[4] Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water.[4] As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitaminsessential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[5] The five major minerals in the human body are calciumphosphoruspotassiumsodium, and magnesium.[2] All of the remaining elements in a human body are called “trace elements”. The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfurironchlorinecobaltcopperzincmanganesemolybdenumiodine and selenium.[6]

Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds. Plants absorb dissolved elements in soils, which are subsequently ingested by the herbivores and omnivores that eat them, and the elements move up the food chain. Larger organisms may also consume soil (geophagia) or use mineral resources, such as salt licks, to obtain limited minerals unavailable through other dietary sources.

Bacteria and fungi play an essential role in the weathering of primary elements that results in the release of nutrients for their own nutrition and for the nutrition of other species in the ecological food chain. One element, cobalt, is available for use by animals only after having been processed into complex molecules (e.g., vitamin B12) by bacteria. Minerals are used by animals and microorganisms for the process of mineralizing structures, called “biomineralization“, used to construct bones, seashellseggshellsexoskeletons and mollusc shells.[7]

Contents

Essential chemical elements for humans

Main article: Composition of the human body

At least twenty chemical elements are known to be required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles as well as electrolytes.[8][9]

Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen are the most abundant elements in the body by weight and make up about 96% of the weight of a human body. Calcium makes up 920 to 1200 grams of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. This is about 1.5% of body weight.[2] Phosphorus occurs in amounts of about 2/3 of calcium, and makes up about 1% of a person’s body weight.[10] The other major minerals (potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body. Together these eleven chemical elements (H, C, N, O, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, S, Mg) make up 99.85% of the body. The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about a gram in total for the average person.[11]

Differences exist opinion about the essential nature of various ultratrace elements in humans (and other mammals), even based on the same data. For example, there is no scientific consensus on whether chromium is an essential trace element in humans. The United States and Japan designate chromium as an essential nutrient,[12][13] but the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), representing the European Union, reviewed the question in 2014 and does not agree.[14]

Most of the known and suggested mineral nutrients are of relatively low atomic weight, and are reasonably common on land, or for sodium and iodine, in the ocean:

H He
LiBe BCNOFNe
NaMg AlSiPSClAr
KCaSc TiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
RbSrY ZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
CsBaLa*HfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
FrRaAc**RfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnNhFlMcLvTsOg
 
 *CePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLu
 **ThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr
Legend:
 The four basic organic elements
 Quantity elements
 Essential trace elements
 Deemed essential trace element by U.S., not by European Union
 Suggested function from deprivation effects or active metabolic handling, but no clearly-identified biochemical function in humans
 Limited circumstantial evidence for trace benefits or biological action in mammals
 No evidence for biological action in mammals, but essential in some lower organisms.
(In the case of lanthanum, the definition of an essential nutrient as being indispensable and irreplaceable is not completely applicable due to the extreme similarity of the lanthanides. The early lanthanides up to Sm are known to stimulate the growth of various lanthanide-using organisms.)[16]

Roles in biological processes

Dietary elementRDA (US) [mg][17]UL (US and EU) [mg][18][19][20]CategoryHigh nutrient density
dietary sources
Term for deficiencyTerm for excess
Potassium4700NENEA systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodiumSweet potato, tomato, potato, beans, lentils, dairy products, seafood, banana, prune, carrot, orange[21]hypokalemiahyperkalemia
Chlorine23003600; NENeeded for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functionsTable salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source.hypochloremiahyperchloremia
Sodium15002300; NEA systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassiumTable salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea vegetablesmilk, and spinach.hyponatremiahypernatremia
Calcium12002500; 2500Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cellsDairy products, eggs, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetablesnutsseeds, tofu, thyme, oregano, dill, cinnamon.[22]hypocalcaemiahypercalcaemia
Phosphorus7004000; 4000A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functionsRed meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[23][24] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[25]hypophosphatemiahyperphosphatemia
Magnesium420350; 250Required for processing ATP and for bonesSpinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, peanut butter, avocado[26]hypomagnesemia,
magnesium deficiency
hypermagnesemia
Iron1845; NERequired for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin to prevent anemiaMeat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark chocolate[27]iron deficiencyiron overload disorder
Zinc1140; 25Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidaseliver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydraseOysters*, red meat, poultry, nuts, whole grains, dairy products[28]zinc deficiencyzinc toxicity
Manganese2.311; NEcofactor in enzyme functionsGrains, legumes, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables, tea, coffee[29]manganese deficiencymanganism
Copper0.910; 5Required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidaseLiver, seafood, oysters, nuts, seeds; some: whole grains, legumes[29]copper deficiencycopper toxicity
Iodine0.1501.1; 0.6Required for synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and to prevent goiter:Iodine in biologySeaweed (kelp or kombu)*, grains, eggs, iodized salt[30]iodine deficiencyiodismHyperthyroidism[31]
Chromium0.035NENEInvolved in glucose and lipid metabolism, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal health are not well-defined[32][33]Broccoli, grape juice (especially red), meat, whole grain products[34]Chromium deficiencyChromium toxicity
Molybdenum0.0452; 0.6The oxidases xanthine oxidasealdehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase[35]Legumes, whole grains, nuts[29]molybdenum deficiencymolybdenum toxicity[36]
Selenium0.0550.4; 0.3Essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidaseBrazil nuts, seafoods, organ meats, meats, grains, dairy products, eggs[37]selenium deficiencyselenosis
CobaltnoneNENERequired in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are required to synthesize the vitamin, it is usually considered part of vitamin B12 which comes from eating animals and animal-sourced foods (eggs…)Cobalt poisoning

RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; UL = Tolerable upper intake level; Figures shown are for adults age 31-50, male or female neither pregnant nor lactating

* One serving of seaweed exceeds the US UL of 1100 μg but not the 3000 μg UL set by Japan.[38]

Blood concentrations of minerals[edit]

Minerals are present in a healthy human being’s blood at certain mass and molar concentrations. The figure below presents the concentrations of each of the chemical elements discussed in this article, from center-right to the right. Depending on the concentrations, some are in upper part of the picture, while others are in the lower part. The figure includes the relative values of other constituents of blood such as hormones. In the figure, minerals are color highlighted in purple.

Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below. (A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity)

Dietary nutrition

Dietitians may recommend that minerals are best supplied by ingesting specific foods rich with the chemical element(s) of interest. The elements may be naturally present in the food (e.g., calcium in dairy milk) or added to the food (e.g., orange juice fortified with calcium; iodized salt fortified with iodine). Dietary supplements can be formulated to contain several different chemical elements (as compounds), a combination of vitamins and/or other chemical compounds, or a single element (as a compound or mixture of compounds), such as calcium (calcium carbonatecalcium citrate) or magnesium (magnesium oxide), or iron (ferrous sulfate, iron bis-glycinate).

The dietary focus on chemical elements derives from an interest in supporting the biochemical reactions of metabolism with the required elemental components.[39] Appropriate intake levels of certain chemical elements have been demonstrated to be required to maintain optimal health. Diet can meet all the body’s chemical element requirements, although supplements can be used when some recommendations are not adequately met by the diet. An example would be a diet low in dairy products, and hence not meeting the recommendation for calcium.

Elements considered possibly essential but not confirmed

Many ultratrace elements have been suggested as essential, but such claims have usually not been confirmed. Definitive evidence for efficacy comes from the characterization of a biomolecule containing the element with an identifiable and testable function.[6] One problem with identifying efficacy is that some elements are innocuous at low concentrations and are pervasive (examples: silicon and nickel in solid and dust), so proof of efficacy is lacking because deficiencies are difficult to reproduce.[39] Ultratrace elements of some minerals such as silicon and boron are known to have a role but the exact biochemical nature is unknown, and others such as arsenic are suspected to have a role in health, but with weaker evidence.[6]

ElementDescriptionExcess
BrominePossibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[40]bromism
ArsenicEssential in rat, hamster, goat and chicken models, but no biochemical mechanism known in humans.[41]arsenic poisoning
NickelNickel is an essential component of several enzymes, including urease and hydrogenase.[42] Although not required by humans, some are thought to be required by gut bacteria, such as urease required by some varieties of Bifidobacterium.[43] In humans, nickel may be a cofactor or structural component of certain metalloenzymes involved in hydrolysisredox rections, and gene expression. Nickel deficiency depressed growth in goats, pigs, and sheep, and diminished circulating thyroid hormone concentration in rats.[44]Nickel toxicity
FluorineFluorine (as fluoride) is not considered an essential element because humans do not require it for growth or to sustain life. Research indicates that the primary dental benefit from fluoride occurs at the surface from topical exposure.[45][46] Of the minerals in this table, fluoride is the only one for which the U.S. Institute of Medicine has established an Adequate Intake.[47]Fluoride poisoning
BoronBoron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[48][49][50] Boron has been shown to be essential to complete the life cycle in representatives of all phylogenetic kingdoms, including the model species Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog).[42][51] In animals, supplemental boron has been shown to reduce calcium excretion and activate vitamin D.[52]Nontoxic
LithiumIt is not known whether lithium has a physiological role in any species,[53] but nutritional studies in mammals have indicated its importance to health, leading to a suggestion that it be classed as an essential trace element.Lithium toxicity
StrontiumStrontium has been found to be involved in the utilization of calcium in the body. It has promoting action on calcium uptake into bone at moderate dietary strontium levels, but a rachitogenic (rickets-producing) action at higher dietary levels.[54]Rachitogenic (causing Rickets)
OtherSilicon and vanadium have established, albeit specialized, biochemical roles as structural or functional cofactors in other organisms, and are possibly, even probably, used by mammals (including humans). By contrast, tungsten, the early lanthanides, and cadmium have specialized biochemical uses in certain lower organisms, but these elements appear not to be utilized by humans.[55] Other elements considered to be possibly essential include aluminiumgermaniumleadrubidium, and tin.[42][56][57]Multiple

Mineral ecology

Minerals can be bioengineered by bacteria which act on metals to catalyze mineral dissolution and precipitation.[58] Mineral nutrients are recycled by bacteria distributed throughout soils, oceans, freshwatergroundwater, and glacier meltwater systems worldwide.[58][59] Bacteria absorb dissolved organic matter containing minerals as they scavenge phytoplankton blooms.[59] Mineral nutrients cycle through this marine food chain, from bacteria and phytoplankton to flagellates and zooplankton, which are then eaten by other marine life.[58][59] In terrestrial ecosystemsfungi have similar roles as bacteria, mobilizing minerals from matter inaccessible by other organisms, then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[60][61]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

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